Figure 2.1: Schematic LEED-AES retarding-field analyzer (RFA). A beam of mono-energetic electrons is emitted from the gun. Electrons diffract from the grounded sample surface. Backscattered electrons travel in a field-free region, between the sample and detector. Electrons are high-pass filtered by the 2nd and 3rd grids. Finally, the electrons excite a phosphor screen.

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